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GUIDELINES This site allows non-lexicographers to aid the specialists in elaborating the history of English words and names.

Non-lexicographers provide the raw data and why the example may be relevant: words with links to the AALT with the apparent relevant entry in the OED [www.oed.com], along with as much more information as they are willing to give. The necessary elements are WORD, DATE, QUOTATION, OED entry referenced and relation to that entry, DOCUMENT link, county margination, and series. You may include also the Middle English form or Anglo-Norman form if you want. This entry is just raw data and NOT a statement that the word is properly identified.

TEMPLATE (In edit mode, copy and paste the template; delete elements not included, write over necessary elements):

Bugle (OED bugle, MED bugle, AND bugle): 1318. KB27. Surrey. tria cornua, que vocantur bugles. Early use by OED, could be French. [1]

Lexicographers and similar specialists may assess the raw data using the format of bullet points beneath the raw data entry. The raw data may be added to or edited, but not completely removed. Raw data that was misidentified should remain to assist others who want to enter data. The lexicographical assessment bullets should confirm the identification or supply a different identification and indicate whether the word is too common (“No more needed”), only earlier examples are desirable (“Only earlier needed”) or any further examples are desirable (“More needed”). If the material is carried over to a dictionary, that should likewise be indicated. Disagreement with the assessment can be indicated in a second bullet etc.


  • Proper identification. More needed.

You are encouraged to provide more information from the Middle English Dictionary [2], the Anglo-Norman Dictionary [www.anglo-norman.net], P.H. Reaney and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames ed. 3 (1991), G. Fransson, Middle English Surnames of Occupation 1100-1350 (1935), or B. Thuresson, Middle English Occupational Terms (1950).


Tabletter: Berkshire. Johannes le Tabletter. OED seems not to have. [3] rcp 03/12

Tapicer: Yorkshire. Johannes le Tapicer. OED has earliest 1405. [4] rcp 11/12

Tapster: Norfolk. Mabillam de Rudham tapstere. OED has only earlyier in 1000. [5] rcp 03/12

Tapyser: 1342. London. Johanni de London tapyser. OED has earliest 1405. [6]. London. 1359. Willelmus de Glodeseye tapicer. [7] rcp

Taskere: 1342. Oxfordshire. Adam le Tasker de Chaumcumbe. [8]. 1344. Oxfordshire. Petrus le Taskere of churche. OED has earliest sixteenth century. [9] rcp 03/12

Teyghler: 1343. Hampshire. Robertum filium Gilberti de Odyham tighler. [10]. 1345. Lincolnshire. Johannem de Byrle de Sancto Botolpho teyghler. OED has only earlier example in 1300. [11] rcp 03/12

Teynturer: 1320. Huntingdonshire. Magister Willelmus le Teynturer ... Johannes filius Petri le Teynturer. Not in OED. [12]

Thakker: 1344. Nottinghamshire. Thomam le Thakker. OED has earliest 1450. [13] rcp

Thetcher: 1342. Somerset. Thomam le Thetchere. [14]. 1354. Kent. William Bruggeman, thetcher. OED has earliest c. 1450. [15] SJ 07/11

Threle: 1342. Sussex. Willelmus le Threle. [16] rcp 11/12

Threshere: 1344. Kent. cum Thoma le Threshere. OED has 1380. [17] rcp 03/12; 1361. Cambridgeshire. Johannem Cokke thresher. [18] rcp 03/13

Thwitel: 1346. Lincolnshire. de quodam cultello vocato thwytel precii duorum denariorum. [19]. 1348. Yorkshire/Staffordshire. Extraxit quendam cultellum vocatum thwitel. OED has only earlier usage in 1326. [20] rcp

Tymbermongere: 1344. London. Roberto de Causton tymbermongere. Only OED reference is in 1275. [21] rcp

Tynkeler: 1345. Lincolnshire. Radulfum Tynkeler. OED has only earlier in 1175. [22] cp 03/12

Tynkere: 1343. Staffordshire. Johannem Tynkere de Tamworth. OED has only earlier 1265. [23] rcp

Tornour: 1314. Hertfordshire. Juliana le Turnur [24] SJ; 1361. Devon. Willelmum Dymmok tornour. OED has earliest 1415. [25] rcp 04/13

Toth: 1343. Cambridgeshire. Henricum le Cook de Ely, Alanum With the toth ledere, Simonem le Musterder. OED has only in 1200 with uncertain meaning. [26] rcp

Tourtemaker: 1354. London. Simon le Tourtemaker. OED has 1706 as earliest for 'tourte'. [27] SJ 07/11

Trashe: 1351. Lincolnshire. Willelmus Trashe. OED has earliest in 1360, 150 years before next earliest usage and regarded as suspect. [28] rcp 0212.

Trayour: 1319. Andream le Trayour. OED has earliest 1473. [29]

Treager: 1590. London. panni linei vocati treager. OED has earliest 1610. [30] rcp 04/12

Trenchour: 1347. de quodam cultello vocato trenchour. OED has earliest 1330, then 1400. [31]. H1360. Cambridgeshire. [32]. M1360. London. quendam cultellum sine puncto vocatum trenchour. [33] rcp 03/13

Trotter: 1345. London. Johannem Trottere messager. OED does not have in this sense until 1562. [34] rcp 03/12

Turkeys: 1530. London. unum anulum aureum cum uno lapide precioso vocato a turkeys in eodem anulo infixo. OED seemingly has no such meaning. [35] rcp 02/12

Twytel: 1359. Somerset. cum quodam cultello vocato twytel. OED does not have. [36] rcp

Tymberman: Willelmum le Tymberman. Suffolk. OED has earliest 1429, although "Timber" far earlier. [37]