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GUIDELINES This site allows non-lexicographers to aid the specialists in elaborating the history of English words and names.

Non-lexicographers provide the raw data and why the example may be relevant: words with links to the AALT with the apparent relevant entry in the OED [www.oed.com], along with as much more information as they are willing to give. The necessary elements are WORD, DATE, QUOTATION, OED entry referenced and relation to that entry, DOCUMENT link, county margination, and series. You may include also the Middle English form or Anglo-Norman form if you want. This entry is just raw data and NOT a statement that the word is properly identified.

TEMPLATE (In edit mode, copy and paste the template; delete elements not included, write over necessary elements):

Bugle (OED bugle, MED bugle, AND bugle): 1318. KB27. Surrey. tria cornua, que vocantur bugles. Early use by OED, could be French. [1]

Lexicographers and similar specialists may assess the raw data using the format of bullet points beneath the raw data entry. The raw data may be added to or edited, but not completely removed. Raw data that was misidentified should remain to assist others who want to enter data. The lexicographical assessment bullets should confirm the identification or supply a different identification and indicate whether the word is too common (“No more needed”), only earlier examples are desirable (“Only earlier needed”) or any further examples are desirable (“More needed”). If the material is carried over to a dictionary, that should likewise be indicated. Disagreement with the assessment can be indicated in a second bullet etc.


  • Proper identification. More needed.

You are encouraged to provide more information from the Middle English Dictionary [2], the Anglo-Norman Dictionary [www.anglo-norman.net], P.H. Reaney and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames ed. 3 (1991), G. Fransson, Middle English Surnames of Occupation 1100-1350 (1935), or B. Thuresson, Middle English Occupational Terms (1950).


Langesmyth: 1319. Willelmus le Langesmyth.  ? [3]

Lardiner: 1345. Oxfordshire. Willelmum le Lardyner. OED has earliest 1400. [4] rcp 02/12

Latoner: 1346. London. Robertus Whityng de London latoner. OED has earliest 1392. [5] rcp 04/12

Ledbeter: 1354. Bedfordshire. Johannem filium Willelmi le Ledbeter de Carleton. Not in OED. [6] rcp 09/12

Leye 1354. 'in aqua vocata 'le Leye' que currit de Ware usque Waltham Sancte Crucis et abinde usque ad civitatem domini regis London', modern spelling 'Lea'. According to Wikipedia only called 'Leye' in early medieval period [7] SJ 11/12

Lightfote: 1319. Johannes Lightfote. OED earliest use 1325 for animal. [8]

Lytstere: 1320. Robertus Willesman le Lytstere. Northamptonshire. OED earliest use 1374. [9]. 1344. Cambridgeshire. Petrum le Frenshe littestere. [10] rcp 03/12

Locsmyth: 1345. Derbyshire. Thomam le Locsmyth de Asheborne. OED has only earlier example in 1226. [11] rcp 03/12

Luminour. 1357. London. Johannes de Lincoln de London lumynour. OED has only two examples (1330, 1491). [12] rcp 10/12