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Everyday Extractions: Liminalities and Adulterations in the Niger Delta. By Rebecca Golden Timsar

Egbesu, the powerful Ijaw arch-deity of justice and war both promulgated and mitigated violence for Ijaw youth in their struggle against inequality, the Nigerian federal government, petroleum multinationals, and “adulterated Egbesu boys.” Worship of Egbesu pervaded Ijaw youth perceptions of order at a time when, elsewhere, Islam and Christianity were central motors of Nigerian politics.

The Ijaw Youth Council solicited power from the past to aid and to abet the articulation of militancy and resistance in the present, transforming local, national, and transnational landscapes of power, security, equality, and moral order.

This paper investigates the transformative aspects of extractive violence within Ijaw resistance groups as “original” and “adulterated” and are cast against the Ijaw warrior ethos, masculinity, and socio-religious liminality. These transformations are intensified by the creative and mercurial roles that both youth and religion play in the mimetic (that is the imitation but with a distortion) production and reproduction of violence and injustices.