Today, did he, or didn’t he? The University of Houston’s College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them.
Napoleon Bonaparte is best known as a great military commander and one time Emperor of France — a man who seized power in the aftermath of the French Revolution. An emperor wasnít exactly what the revolutionaries had in mind. But Napoleon left a lasting, albeit mixed, legacy as an enlightened despot. He established a uniform code of laws. He supported a social order based on merit, not birthright. He believed in the importance of science and education — especially, mathematics.
By all accounts, Napoleon excelled in mathematics as a student. In later years he surrounded himself with some of the greatest mathematicians of his era — Lagrange, Laplace, and Legendre among them. Thereís even a famous result in trigonometry that bears his name — Napoleonís Theorem. But much of that fame comes from the question, ďDid Napoleon actually prove it?Ē
A lot of fuel for the debate was provided by an off-hand comment of two twentieth century mathematicians. One was the famed geometer Donald Coxeter. In the textbook, Geometry Revisited, he and co-author Samuel Greitzer write, ďÖ the possibility of Napoleon knowing enough geometry [to prove the result] is as questionable as the possibility that he knew enough English to compose the famous palindrome ABLE WAS I ERE I SAW ELBA.Ē Coxeter and Greitzer didnít just challenge the claim that Napoleon was first. They didnít think he was capable of solving it at all. Itís quite an insult coming from the English born Coxeter.
So could Napoleon have proved the result? A review of the many proofs leaves little doubt — he certainly could have. Napoleonís Theorem requires logical thinking but little more. Most proofs of it are understandable by a good high school student. What led Coxeter and Greitzer to disparage Napoleonís abilities isnít clear, though it may have been just a poor effort at humor. The palindrome ABLE WAS I ERE I SAW ELBA is fabled to have been uttered by Napoleon, who at one time was exiled to Elba.
But was Napoleon the first to discover the result that bears his name? Thatís not at all clear. Napoleon might never have actually discovered the steps in the proof. The result simply could have been named in his honor by someone seeking to curry favor.
More to the point, though, it really doesnít matter. Fascinating as Napoleonís Theorem is, itís not profound enough to cement anyoneís place in history. And itís one of those delightful geometric results thatís probably been discovered countless times, and will be again. The wonder doesnít lay in who first proved it, but in the uniquely human ingenuity required to discover, and appreciate, its beauty.
Iím Andy Boyd at the University of Houston, where weíre interested in the way inventive minds work.
Many thanks to Mr. Pierre Augier for bringing this story to my attention.
Napoleonís Theorem is as follows. Take any triangle, and for each edge construct an equilateral triangle with that edge as its base. The three centroids of the triangles so constructed define an equilateral triangle.
Proofs of this theorem can be found at, for example, the Cut the Knot web site, http://www.cut-the-knot.org/proofs/napoleon.shtml. The proof in Coxeter and Greitzerís book is also quite accessible.
H. S. M. Coxeter and S. L. Greitzer. Geometry Revisited. New York: Random House, 1967.
P. Davis and R. Hersh. The Mathematical Experience. Boston: Birkhauser, 1981.
A. Johnson. Famous Problems and Their Mathematicians. Greenwood Village, Colorado: Teacherís Idea Press, 1999.
All pictures by E. A. Boyd.
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